# Model Gallery

The Model Gallery features COMSOL Multiphysics model files from a wide variety of application areas including the electrical, mechanical, fluid, and chemical disciplines. You can download ready-to-use models and step-by-step instructions for building the model, and use these as a starting point for your own modeling work. Use the Quick Search to find models relevant to your area of expertise, and login or create a COMSOL Access account that is associated with a valid COMSOL license to download the model files.

### Sheet Metal Forming

This example is a NAFEMS validation model of a friction contact problem with an elastoplastic material model. A thin metal sheet is being forced into a die by a punch. Both the compressing displacement and the release of the punch are modeled in order to compute the forming angle (at the maximum punch displacement) and the angle after the punch release. Experimental data are available for ...

### Polynomial Hyperelastic Model

This model shows how you can implement a user defined hyperelastic material, using the strain density energy function. The model used is a general Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic material model defined by a polynomial. In this example, you will see two material models based on the defined expression: a two-term equation and a five-term equation. The two-term Mooney-Rivlin material model implementation ...

### Elastoplastic Analysis of Plate with a Center Hole

In this model you analyze a perforated plate loaded into the plastic regime. In addition to the original problem, which you can find in section 7.10 of The Finite Element Method by O.C. Zienkiewicz, you can also study the unloading of the plate. The model also shows how to apply an external hardening function based on an interpolated stress-strain curve.

### Thermally Induced Creep

Creep is an inelastic time-dependent deformation which occurs when a material is subjected to stress at sufficiently high temperature, say 40% of the melting point or more. Experimental creep data (using constant stress and temperature) often display three different types of behavior for the creep strain rate as function of time: In the initial primary creep regime the creep strain rate ...

### Pressurized Orthotropic Container

A thin-walled container made out of rolled steel is subjected to inner overpressure. The material is represented with an elastic isotropic model together with Hill orthotropic plasticity. The principal directions of the material follow the geometrical shape of the structure and therefore a unique base vector system is created. The stress and plastic strain due to overpressure are evaluated. The ...

### Combining Elastoplastic and Creep Material Models

This model shows how to combine different types of material nonlinearity, such as creep and elastoplasticity. In this specific example you will perform a stress and nonlinear strain analysis on a thick cylinder under a nonproportional loading: an initial temperature increase followed by a fluctuating pressure applied to the internal surface of the cylinder. This load case involves two ...

### Elastoacoustic Effect in Rail Steels

The elastoacoustic effect is a change in the speed of elastic waves that propagate in a structure undergoing static elastic deformations. The effect is used in many ultrasonic techniques for nondestructive testing of prestressed states within structures. This example model studies the elastoacoustic effect in steels typically used in railroad rails. The analysis is based on the Murnaghan ...

### Combining Creep Material Models

This model illustrates how to combine together different Creep material models. Here a Norton-Bailey creep material (primary creep) is combined with a Norton creep material model (secondary creep). This model requires the model thermally induced model and is a modification of the Model Library model Thermally Induced Creep.

### Primary Creep Under Nonconstant Load

In this model example, you will study the creep behavior of material under non-constant loading. You will model the primary creep using a Norton-Bailey law and study the difference between the time hardening and the strain hardening methods available in COMSOL Multiphysics. The model is taken from NAFEMS Understanding Non-Linear Finite Analysis Through Illustrative Benchmarks. The load consist ...

### Inflation of a Spherical Rubber Balloon - Membrane Version

The purpose of this model is to illustrate how the Membrane interface can be used to model thin hyperelastic structures. The example is identical to the Model Library model 'Inflation of a spherical rubber balloon', except that the Membrane interface is used instead of the Solid Mechanics interface.

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